Sarcoidosis Treatment


A comprehensive overview of sarcoidosis covering subjects like symptoms, diagnostics, research, causes and pictures
Sarcoidosis Treatment

Sarcoidosis treatment


     There is no sarcoidosis treatment; but the therapy's goals are:

  • Improving the function of the affected organs
  • improvement of symptoms
  • Reducing the size of granulomas.

     Sarcoidosis treatment can reduce the size of glaucomas or they can even disappear. If they had the time to form scars the treatment will not be effecient.


For the sarcoidoisis treatment medication is used and it includes:


  • Corticosteroid prednisone anti-inflammatory that is efficient but has many adverse effects: cushingoid status, acne, weight gain, edema, hypertension, osteoporosis, diabetes, cataracts, glaucoma, depression, increased risk of infection.
  • Immunosuppressive drugs: prevent the immune system to attack its own structure:
  • Methotrexate, side effects, mouth ulcers, risk of infection, hepatotoxic, taking folic acid avoid adverse
  • Azathioprine-drug with the fewest side effects
  • Cyclofosfamida-marrow suppression, bladder cancer, hemorrhagic cystitis.

     All immunosuppressants are contraindicated in pregnant women.




Local therapy applied to cure lung and skin damage:


  • Eye-drops
  • Corticosteroid creams and lotions,
  • Lung-sprays
  • Minocycline, psoralen with UVA infliximab.

     The surgical intervention is done in deformations of the skin lesions; laser is also used in the treatment of pernio lupus.

     Sarcoidosis treatment does is not always a medical one, especially the acute form usually heals itself without medication. Therefore, mild cases with good prognosis, we recommend waiting for healing (time between health status is monitored by control investigation).

     In case of Lofgren syndrome and acute forms, symptomatic sarcoidosis, medication is administered with an anti-inflammatory purpose, such as aspirin or ibuprofen. If symptoms develop, sarcoidosis is a Type II or whether it affects the already functionally limited organs the recommend sarcoidosis treatment are glucocorticoids.

     Corticosteroids are administered mainly orally in a tablet form, but in case of primary dermal or ocular damage they can be applied topically in the form of eye ointment. If the lungs are involved, it is possible to alternate oral administration (initially) with the inhalation. If the disease evolves chronic sarcoidosis or ineffective answer to corticosteroids, additional medicines may be used with nervous system depressant action (immunosuppressants), such as azathioprine, methotrexate, cloroquin.

     Pharmacotherapy of sarcoidosis treatment lasts on average three months and then it gradually decreases the dosage. During the sarcoidosis treatment periodic investigation of the organs and their functionality is recommended.


Prevention


     Considering that the etiology of sarcoidosis is unknown, there are no preventive measures against them. People who have a history relevant cases of sarcoidosis in one family member shows a higher risk compared to people with no history from this disease.

     Etiology is unknown, but certain immune aberrations have been observed and they are considered to play an important role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Studies showed an increased activity of lymphocytes B, at nearly half of the patients, along with nonspecific formation of immune complexes. Immune mediated delayed hypersensitivity was also discovered in a high percentage of patients. Skin anergy at tuberculin occurs in two thirds of patients. Drugs that increase the TH1 response, such as interferon, have been reported as the triggering or worsening agents of sarcoidosis. Recently, oncogenesis gli-1 was observed in patients.

     Risk factors fall into three categories, including: infection, environment and auto anti genes. The most common infections are Mycobacterium tuberculosis associated with sarcoidosis, Propionibacterium acne, Corynebacteria, herpes virus, Epstein-Bar virus cytomegalus virus, Histoplasma species, are characteristic for each patient.

     Ambient antigens include metals: zirconium, aluminum, beryliu, organic dust: pollen, eggs and mineral: talc, cement, earth.