A comprehensive overview of sarcoidosis covering subjects like symptoms, diagnostics, research, causes and pictures
Clinical and experimental data during sarcoidosis reseach suggest that granuloma formation during the disease is the result of the presence of activated T cells and the activated mononuclear phagocytes. Sarcoidosis research admits that the disease's causes are not known but it might be a form of abnormal immune reactivity against antigen in general or to specific antigens or if there is a combination of two factors.
Sarcoidosis research shows that the disease is generally associated with peripheral T lymphopenia and a reduction in vitro of the response to mitogens. While T lymphocytes are activated in the lungs, in peripheral blood there is a decrease in their number and their response towards mitogen and antigens is significantly reduced.
Granuloma is a host's response to a higher concentration of foreign substances which could not be destroyed and acute inflammatory response that is surrounded and destroyed by mononuclear phagocytes at different stages of maturation and activation. In particular, sarcoidosis research that the disease's granuloma is seen as a consequence of intense immunological response towards an antigen persistent, slowly soluble and poorly degradable.
The histology of sarcoidosis is made up of different degrees of granulomatous inflammation, tissue fibrosis and interstitial pneumonia. The ratio of the appearance of these lesions in a patient depends on disease stage.
The sarcoidosis research has shown without any doubt that the pathological feature of sarcoidosis is the granuloma, which is identical to that determined in early stages of many other etiological agents. It is composed from rare epithelioid histocyte multinucleated giant cells, lymphocytes, rare plasma cells, neutrophils and eosinophils. Granulomas can be found in any organ. It is predominantly located in the lung, septal, interlobular and interstitial pleural interstitium parenchymatous being less affected. Another place of localization is the respiratory tract mucosa, particularly in the small bronchi. Probably due to localization, involving pulmonary arteries and veins is common in sarcoidosis, there is often damage the elastic lamina, sometimes accompanied by necrosis.
Sarcoidosis research show that the dynamics of pathological processes leading to persistent cellular lesions in certain areas, while others resolve spontaneously or in response to therapy. Approximately 75-80% of these lesions heal, maintaining parenchymal architecture. Moreover, they persist or result in the formation of scars. Fibroblasts proliferate in the periphery of granulomas "mature", increasing collagen production.
The possibility of damaging any organ or tissue makes the list of diseases that present these symptoms to be enormous. That's why sarcoidosis research tries to find the exact causes for the disease and simplify the diagnosis.
The most common diseases that must be differentiated from sarcoidosis in the first stage are lymphomas, cancers, lymph node tuberculosis, aneurysms larger vessels (dilation of the vessel wall).
In stage II or III, differential diagnosis is done as oppose to: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (no known cause), pneumomicosis (occupational diseases of the lungs), pulmonary tuberculosis, primary or metastatic neoplasms, leukemia.
Your doctor notices after looking at a chest X-ray, the enlargement of the lymph nodes in the chest and some changes in the lung, particularly small nodules. As the specialty physicians stated, not all patients with sarcoidosis need treatment, because more than half of them heal without therapy within 6 months to two years. However, treatment is required when the patient has a cough and a feeling of suffocation or if it affected a vital organ such as heart, eyes, nervous system. Treatment is medical and lasts about a year until symptoms disappear. In some cases, because of treatment, patients can gain weight, his feet are swollen, blood pressure will be increase, they might get sick of ulcer and gastritis.