Sarcoidosis Diagnosis

A comprehensive overview of sarcoidosis covering subjects like symptoms, diagnostics, research, causes and pictures
Sarcoidosis Diagnosis

Sarcoidosis diagnosis

     To confirm the sarcoidosis diagnosis specific investigations are used depending on the organ that is affected: imaging, laboratory tests, functional tests, histological analysis.

     Given that most in patients' typical granulomas appear at the lung level, it is recommended in all the cases that a chest x-ray is done. Depending on the results of the scan there are distinguished several types of sarcoidosis diagnosis, including lung damage:

     Stage 0: affected organs are outside the chest without pulmonary involvement;

     Stage I: adenopathy between the two lungs, with no visible damage to lung parenchyma;

     Stage II: besides the increase in volume of the ganglions small changes appear (in the form of spots) in the lung;

     Stage III: changes in the lung's tissue without lymph node swelling;

     Stage IV: pulmonary fibrosis;

     In case of proven lung damage it is recommend that functional tests are done to assess the lung function. To confirm the sacoidosis diagnosis there can be made a bronchoscopy or a mediastinoscopy (for direct visualization of the space of the lung and mediastinal aa). Bronchoscopy is usually associated with a bronchoalveolar lavage, which uses a saline solution. Saline solution is then analyzed to identify certain subgroups of T lymphocytes

     Another way of verifying the certainty of the sarcoidosis diagnosis is the collection of tissue (biopsy) during bronchoscopy or mediastinoscopy. Blood tests show elevated levels of the enzyme that converts angiotensin, and in severe pathological stages the increased sedimentation rate of the blood's red cells, a value that indicates the presence of inflammatory reactions.

     To identify changes at the level of the gaglion and for excluding may other pulmonary diseases, it is recommend that a computer tomography of the chest with high resonance is done. To establish the degree of damage to other organs different investigations are needed, such as determining the amount of liver (transaminases), urine analysis, blood count, electrocardiogram. Patients' shows hypercalcemia (increased calcium in the blood vaorile).

     There is no specific test for a through sarcoidiza diagnosis, but some tests are used for its determination:

     Chest X-ray-may show granulomas or lymph nodes enlargement, 95% of patients had abnormal X-ray

     Blood-tests-measure liver function, the Calcium from blood, abnormally increased in sarcoidosis, renal function and activity of hematopoietic

     Lung-function tests-spirometry

  • ECG
  • Pulsoximetric tests
  • Blood-gas measurement
  • Bronchoscopy with fibroscopy
  • Biopsy
  • TC and MRI
  • PET scan, using gallium, a substance which is fixed on inflammation.

Symptoms and signs of sarcoidosis

     The sarcoidosis disease is often free of symptoms or signs. In other cases, the disease can be emphasized by different events:

  • Thoracic injuries are the most common of symptoms: enlarged lymph nodes (swelling of the lymph nodes) of the mediastinum (region between the two lungs), nodular infiltrations of the lungs, diffuse pulmonary infiltration.
  • Skin lesions are frequently represented by an erythema nodosum which is characterized by red colored nodules, symmetry, sensitive, which are located on the front of the legs. These skin lesions are typically accompanied by rare and nonspecific manifestations: hair loss, erythroderma (redness and peeling of the skin), Ichthyosis (dry skin covered with fine scales), itching.
  • Other symptoms or signs of sarcoidosis may be a hypertrophy of the superficial ganglions (axillary, groin), an arthritis pain, diffuse pain, ovular abnormalities (anterior uveitis, for example) and damage of the liver and the salivary glands.

     Evolution and treatment - The sarcoidosis is a disease that develops successive spikes. The disease's outburst factors are unknown although a lot of recent studies tried to determine them. The treatment depends on the overall results.

Sarcoidosis diagnosis pictures and images

sarcoidosis diagnosis picture

     Initial diagnosis of sarcoidosis is based on the affected person's medical history, routine exams, a physical examination, and a chest x- ray.